Table 14
New order

Hans Frank's proclamation of taking the office of Governor-General for the occupied Polish areas, issued on the 26th October 1939.

Specially labelled tramcar in Kraków. The Jews could enter only the area designated for them. This regulation was enacted by the starost of the city of Kraków on the 1st March 1940.

Jewish boy carrying Torah.

German propaganda poster posted in 1940 in towns and villages of the General Government. The German propaganda aimed at total isolation of the Jewish population through mocking, humiliation and making it odious.

Column of Jews from Kraków sent to forced labour (cleaning the city), passing the Barbican. One of the first regulations enacted by the occupational authorities introduced the institution of forced labour for the Jews between 14 and 60 years old.

Synagogue in Siedlce set on fire by the Germans on the Christmas Eve, December 1939. During the first months of the war the Germans burned numerous synagogues, in some cases with the local Jews locked inside.

Information board at the Planty Gradens in Kraków banning the Jews from them. The ban was in force since the 29th April 1940. The bans on travelling by trains, entering parks, cinemas etc. were introduced throughout the General Government.

The new legal order imposed by the Germans deprived the Jews of their property and curtailed their freedom of movement. They had to wear Star of David as their distinctive sign and to do humiliating jobs. The Nazis aimed at destroying synagogues, objects of religious worship and everything, that was not an element of the German culture. Anti-Jewish propaganda and draconian measures taken by the Germans widened the gap between the Poles and the Jews. The most of the latter felt isolated, beset by fear and indifference.

German soldiers are mocking the Jew wearing liturgical dress. Humiliating, persecuting and tormenting the Jews were their fovourite entertainments.

A & K Woźniak