Table 16
Route to death

Jewish children caught smuggling food; German propaganda photograph. Smuggling food was the only way to survive. In most cases it is children who did the job.

Children's ward at the hospital in Łódź's ghetto; German propaganda photograph. Starvation diets, little sanitation and crowded living conditions caused typhus and dysentery epidemics decimating the Jewish population.

Reembarkation of transport of the Jews heading some extermination camp (probably Chełmno upon Ner) at the narrow gauge railway station in Koło. The camp, established in November 1941, was the main site of extermination of the Jews from Łódź and Warta Land. It operated till 1945. Germans used there vans as gas chambers in which people were killed with the exhaust fumes.

Jewish children in the Warsaw ghetto. Children looking for food or shelter outside the ghetto, in case of being caught were - just like adults - executed.

Cart with dead bodies of children that died in ghetto - the first victims of the "indirect extermination" carried out by the Germans. Being the weakest, they were first to die of starvation and deseases spreading in ghettos.

Liquidation of the ghetto in Międzyrzecz Podlaski, 26th May 1943. The column of the Jews was escorted by the German military police, Jewish police and Polish Blue Police.

Personal belongings abandoned during the displacement of the Jews from the Kraków's ghetto, June 1942. The Jewish property left in ghettos, that formally was becoming the property of the German Reich, was a great temptation for their Polish neighbours, who in some cases appropriated it with no scruples at all.

Each day in ghetto meant the struggle for survival. In order to survive, one had to work, because those not working, didn't get food rations. Those, who who were lucky enough not to die of starvation or deseases, were threatened with "displacement" which meant being deported to an extermination camp. The Germans reduced the number of workplaces and the ghetto area more and more. By the end of 1942 they had murdered 70% of the Polish Jews and only 60 out of more than 400 ghettos had survived. Only very few Jews from the liquidated ghettos were being sent to work camps. The most of them went directly to extermination camps.

Children designated for "displacement" in Central Displacement Camp. At the Germans' order Judenrats registered children as "unable to work". Then they were sent to concentration sites and from there - "displaced".

A & K Woźniak